Abstract: Many MOOCs use units with videos and quizzes, where a successful attempt after several tries is the basis for a MOOC certificate. A first in-depth analysis of quiz behavior within a MOOC at the Austrian MOOC platform iMooX.at had shown several quiz attempts patterns (Mair et al. 2022). As a next step, the researchers now collected details on video watching within a new edition of the same MOOC and therefore could combine data on quiz and video behavior. This analysis shows similar distribution of the quiz attempt patterns as in our first analysis. Additionally, the analysis indicates that learners who completed more quiz attempts than needed for full point results or passing have a higher average video watching time than learners who only made attempts until reaching a full score or passing.KeywordsMOOC; quiz behaviorVideo behaviorLearningLearning analytics
Reference: Mair, B., Schön, S., Ebner, M., Edelsbrunner, S., Leitner, P. (2023). Learning with Videos and Quiz Attempts: Explorative Insights into Behavior and Patterns of MOOC Participants. In: Zaphiris, P., Ioannou, A. (eds) Learning and Collaboration Technologies. HCII 2023. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 14040. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-34411-4_22
Our publication on “Porting a Native Android App to iOS” got published in the nternational Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM):
Abstract: The two mobile operating systems Android and i(Pad)OS have dominated the smartphone and tablet market for years and app providers have to offer their apps for both systems in most cases in order to be competitive or to be able to reach the majority of potential customers. In native app development, separate applications have to be written and maintained for each platform. Often, apps are developed for one platform first and the second app is developed at a later stage, after some feedback could be collected. This porting from one system to the other can be either (partially) automated or manual, but in any case, it has its challenges. Both systems were designed with different approaches and differ greatly in some parts from each other – not only visually, but also in terms of the underlying structure. To illustrate the porting process, the Android app “Schoolstart Screening App”, which was developed for the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research of Austria by Graz University of Technology at the OU Educational Technology, was ported so that it can be used also on iPads. Automated approaches were discussed and the chosen process is explained to get a good overview of the topic.
Reference: Rauter, M., Wachtler, J., & Ebner, M. (2023). Porting a Native Android App to iOS: Porting Process Shown by the Example of the “Schoolstart Screening App”. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 17(23), pp. 20–31. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v17i23.43829
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation of the moodle and edmodo learning management system (LMS) in education, to identify the specific features of the LMS that were utilized in the learning process, and to assess the impact of the LMS on student learning outcomes, drawing on cognitive learning theory. The research method is a systematic literature review (SLR) using the Scopus and Taylor & Francis databases, guided by the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analyses) protocol, to analyze the data. The validity of the study was tested using the Gregory test with four expert examiners, namely an SLR expert, an LMS expert, and experts in cognitive learning outcomes. The results of the electronic database search focused on articles related to LMS implementation, LMS features, and student cognitive learning outcomes. This systematic literature review identified four key stages that serve as indicators of LMS implementation: 1) introduction, 2) registration, 3) learning materials, and 4) evaluation (assessment or feedback). The LMS features used in learning are grouped into four sections: communication features, course content features, course delivery features, and assignment features. The findings of the literature review indicate that the implementation of LMS and the features utilized in the learning process have an impact on various aspects of learning. These include learning satisfaction, engagement, learning experience, comfort, effectiveness, motivation, and the improvement of student learning outcomes.
Reference: Aulianda, N., Wijayati, P. H., Ebner, M., & Schön, S. (2023). The Analysis of Learning Management System towards Students’ Cognitive Learning Outcome: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 18(23), pp. 4–26. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v18i23.36443
Abstract: This work deals with the maintenance of information systems—specifically, with the maintenance of information systems that have a focus on teaching and learning. Depending on the context of an information system, there are different influencing factors for the maintenance of these systems. This work clarifies how the maintenance activities and their influencing factors differ in an information system for teaching and learning from other information systems, or why some influencing factors are particularly more important. The first step is to understand what maintenance means, why there is a need for maintenance, and which maintenance strategies can be used. Finally, the defined factors of influencing the maintenance of information systems for teaching and learning are evaluated during interviews with experts in order to be able to determine their relevance. A further part of this document is the influence of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) guidelines on information systems maintenance, which came into force on May 25, 2018. These guidelines of the GDPR affect a large part of all information systems that process data—in particular, the processing of personal data. The GDPR regulates, among other things, the rights and obligations of data processing.
Reference: Pilz, M., Ebner, M., & Wachtler, J. (2023). Information Systems Maintenance: Maintenance Factors for Information Systems with a Focus on Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 18(15), pp. 67–78. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v18i15.40919
We did a contribution to the HCII 2023 conference titled “Operationalising Transparency as an Integral Value of Learning Analytics Systems – From Ethical and Data Protection to Technical Design Requirements“. Now you can find the publication online:
Abstract: With the rising complexity of technology and its introduction into educational settings, the question of trusting and designing trustworthy learning analytics (LA) systems has gained importance. Transparency is one of the values that can contribute to enhancing an LA system’s trustworthiness. It has been included and discussed as a separate core value or principle in many ethical frameworks for LA. Even though these frameworks provide valuable contributions, they are mostly limited to the conceptual level. Defining what transparency entails in the context of LA is an important aspect, nevertheless, the translation and operationalisation of such abstract concepts into technology should be equally considered.In this paper, we focus on the question of how transparency can be translated into concrete design requirements in order to enhance the trustworthiness of LA systems. We present a normative framework in the form of an interdisciplinary Criteria Catalogue for trustworthy LA, which consists of seven core areas, including transparency. Second, we demonstrate how transparency can be translated and operationalised into more specific and low-level elements by using an example of the Learners’ Corner LA dashboard developed within the project “Learning Analytics – Students in Focus”. Third, we share the results of a study conducted to better understand students’ information needs in relation to LA tools and evaluate our design choices for the introduction of three quick information buttons within the Learners’ Corner.
Rerference: Veljanova, H., Barreiros, C., Gosch, N., Staudegger, E., Ebner, M., Lindstaedt, S. (2023). Operationalising Transparency as an Integral Value of Learning Analytics Systems – From Ethical and Data Protection to Technical Design Requirements. In: Zaphiris, P., Ioannou, A. (eds) Learning and Collaboration Technologies. HCII 2023. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 14040. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-34411-4_37
Abstract: Mixed reality as a tool for teaching has made only limited use of its possibilities so far. However, it brings a plethora of new opportunities, with benefits ranging from interactivity to more vividness. These factors could improve numerous areas of teaching. The mining sector would benefit from new methods combined with mixed reality especially. Therefore, the MiReBooks project was launched: Various applications have been developed that can vividly present content using 3D models, virtual field trips and other methods. To verify and further improve these tools, an evaluation phase was conducted. During two test lectures in distance learning, a total of 23 participants answered a posttest questionnaire. The results showed that the teaching quality could be maintained well by the mixed reality application even in distance learning. Students were satisfied with the methods used, attributed good usability to the tool, and felt integrated into the classroom. At the same time, the team realized that the quality of the lesson depends heavily on the quality of the materials and the expertise of the lecturer. It also became clear that other factors, such as the technical infrastructure and support, are particularly important in this format.
Abstract: Human-centred design is a well-established approach within research fields such as human-computer interaction, ergonomics, and human factors. Recently Learning Analytics (LA) researchers and practitioners have manifested great interest in exploring methods and techniques associated with this approach to manage the design process in ways that can enhance human interaction with LA technology. The project “Learning Analytics – Students in Focus” aims to use student-related data to support the learning and teaching process in a higher educational context. Our interdisciplinary team investigates LA tools that leverage students’ academic success by acquiring or developing self-regulated learning skills. We adopted a Human-Centred Learning Analytics (HCLA) approach involving students, teachers, and other educational stakeholders in the iterative design of our LA tools. This article contributes to the discussion on how to design LA tools using a human-centred approach. We describe the analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation process of three LA tools comprised in our students’ dashboard, i.e., the planner, the activity graph, and the learning diary. In addition, we present key results gained in several empirical studies which had an implication on the tools’ design. Finally, we provide insights about our experience with the HCLA approach, pointing out benefits and limitations in practice.
Reference: Barreiros, C., Leitner, P., Ebner, M., Veas, E., Lindstaedt, S. (2023). Students in Focus – Moving Towards Human-Centred Learning Analytics. In: Viberg, O., Grönlund, Å. (eds) Practicable Learning Analytics. Advances in Analytics for Learning and Teaching. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-27646-0_5
Zusammenfassung: Der Einsatz von Learning Analytics etabliert sich zunehmend an Hochschulen. Im Rahmen eines vom BMBWF kofinanzierten Projekts wurde sowohl auf Ebene der Lehrveranstaltung als auch auf Ebene des Studiums angesetzt. Tools und Qualifizierungsmaßnahmen wurden entwickelt, die Studierende und ihre Interessen ins Zentrum stellen. Das Projekt verfolgt somit einen studierendenzentrierten Ansatz, der Autonomie und Freiwilligkeit der Teilnahme in den Vordergrund rückt. An den drei beteiligten Universitäten wurden Dashboards, wie der Learner’s Corner sowie Begleitmaßnahmen (Mentoring, Tutorials, …) entwickelt und empirisch überprüft. Außerdem wurden ethische und datenschutzrechtliche Richtlinien im Rahmen eines interdisziplinär erarbeiteten Kriterienkatalogs entwickelt. Im Beitrag wird der Einsatz von Learning-Analytics-Tools auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen (Moodle-Plug-ins, Anwendung zur Visualisierung des Studienfortschritts) anhand von aus dem Projekt ausgewählten Schwerpunkten exemplarisch veranschaulicht und einzelne empirische Ergebnisse werden vorgestellt.
We did a small contribution to the 4th International Workshop on Human-Centred Learning Analytics (HCLA) co-located with the 13th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge Conference (LAK2023) about our learning analytics efforts at Graz University of Technology. Our publication titled “Shaping learning analytics technology through human- centredness” is now online availble, too
Abstract: Learning Analytics (LA) researchers and practitioners are growing interested in applying human-centred design methods and techniques to design LA technology. This approach finds solutions by involving the perspectives of students, teachers, and other educational stakeholders in all process steps. It enables the creation of technology that resonates and is tailored to the end-users needs. The “Learning Analytics-Students in Focus” project aims to support the learning and teaching process in the higher education context. Our interdisciplinary team focuses on LA technology that facilitates acquiring and developing students’ self-regulated learning skills, such as goal setting, planning, monitoring progress, and reflecting. We embraced a Human-Centred Learning Analytics (HCLA) approach since the start of our project, and it helped us to understand students’ points of view and needs and find solutions together. This article summarises the design process of a LA tool named Planner, which aims to support students in planning and monitoring coursework. We share our experience with various methods and techniques applied in our research and present insights about the benefits and limitations of the HCLA approach. Finally, we highlight how the HCLA approach helped to build a LA community at our university and promote trust towards LA.
Reference: Barreiros, C., Leitner, P., Ebner, M., Linstädt, S. (2023) Shaping learning analytics technology through human- centredness. In: Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on Human-Centred Learning Analytics (HCLA) co-located with the 13th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge Conference (LAK2023), Virtual, March 13, 2023
Und wir sind bereits in Woche 2 des MOOC “Learning Analytics für die Hochschullehre“. Diese Woche geht es um “Lernförderliche Integration von Learning Analytics” und es werden von meinen Kolleginnen selbstgesteuertes Lernen sowohl auf Studiumsebene als auch auch Lehrveranstaltungsebene vorgestellt. Hier spricht dazu Syliva Lipp aus Sicht der Lernende:
In diesem Video wird der lernförderliche Einsatz von Learning Analytics auf Ebene von Lehrveranstaltungen adressiert. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Zielgruppe der Lernenden und deren Unterstützung im selbstregulierten Lernen. Dazu erfolgt in einem ersten Schritt eine theoretische Einordnung des selbstregulierten Lernens. Ausgehend von der Diskussion eines Komponenten- und Prozessmodells wird im nächsten Schritt ein konkretes Anwendungsszenario, ein Moodle Kurs, vorgestellt. Daran wird veranschaulicht, wie Lernende in einer digitalen Lernumgebung mittels Learning Analytics im selbstregulierten Lernen begleitet werden können. Das Video schließt mit Hinweisen zum Einsatz von Learning Analytics in Lehrveranstaltungen.